Understanding Concept Development In Architecture

The importance of concept development extends beyond the initial stages of design, and influences every decision...

Concept development in architecture is a fundamental process that shapes the very essence of our built environment. It involves the generation, refinement, and articulation of ideas that ultimately guides each design stage and the physical realisation of our projects.

At its core, concept development serves as the bridge between our vision as the architect, and the physical structure that emerges from it.

This phase of architectural design is not just about aesthetics; it’s deeply rooted in functionality, sustainability, and the socio-cultural context within which a project exists.

The importance of this process extends beyond the initial stages of design, and influences every decision made throughout the projects lifecycle – from the selection of materials and construction techniques, to the integration of the building within its environment and community.


  • Concept development serves as the foundation for design, ensuring projects align with its purpose, user needs, and contextual factors.
  • This process bridges the vision of the architect with the physical structure, influencing every design decision from aesthetics to functionality and sustainability.
  • Effective concept integrates thorough research on site conditions, client requirements, historical precedents, and technological advancements into a coherent design direction.
  • Collaboration among architects, clients, engineers, and stakeholders is essential in refining and realizing a shared vision throughout the project lifecycle.
  • Balancing creativity with feasibility, regulatory constraints, sustainability, and client expectations is crucial for successful development, resulting in innovative and context-responsive designs.
Concept Development In Architecture

A well-defined concept ensures that the project remains aligned with its intended purpose, reflects the values and needs of its users, and responds to the environmental and social factors of its locale.

It requires us as designers to synthesise a broad range of information — including site conditions, client requirements, historical precedents, and technological advancements — into a coherent and compelling design direction.

This initial concept then informs the detailed design work, helping to maintain a consistent vision as the project evolves from sketches to structures.

The process of developing a concept is also inherently collaborative, involving dialogue and interaction among architects, clients, engineers, and other stakeholders. Through this combined effort, the concept becomes a shared vision that guides the collective efforts of the project team.

Concept Development In Architecture

We receive a lot of questions about how to generate and develop an architectural design concept, and how to generally create and justify a design response, and so here we will look at where the design process starts …with the concept

Every architecture project should start with a concept that put simply; is an idea that provides the foundation and backbone to your design process and decision making.

For this reason, it hopefully goes without saying that this aspect of a projects inception is vitally important to the scale of its success.

As it is due to this importance, that a concepts substance and meaning is often the first aspect of a building to be scrutinised, and can therefore be held responsible for whether a scheme is won or lost based on its strength and ability to be relevant.

There are many ways to develop quick off-the-cuff concepts, but generating one with meaning and depth that will help to support the development of your project can be difficult, and whilst there is a process we believe can be followed (outlined below), it does take invested time, research and development.

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The Nature of Architectural Concepts

The nature of a concept lies at the very heart of architecture, serving as the intellectual and creative backbone.

These concepts are not merely abstract ideas but are deeply rooted in the project’s intentions, guiding every decision from the macro scale of urban planning down to the micro details of interior design.

Understanding the nature of these is crucial for grasping how we conceive, develop, and execute their visions, transforming intangible ideas into physical realities that interact with their surroundings and users.

Theoretical and Practical Components

Concepts encompass both theoretical and practical components. Theoretically, they represent the our vision, philosophy, and response to the project’s context, including its cultural, historical, and environmental aspects.

This theoretical basis provides a narrative or a set of values that inform the design process, ensuring that the project is more than just an assemblage of spaces but a thoughtful response to its requirements and setting.

Practically, they translate these theories into tangible elements of design, such as form, space, structure, material, and light.

This translation involves a creative synthesis of functional requirements, aesthetic aspirations, and technical considerations, resulting in a project that not only meets its intended use but also contributes to the broader context in a meaningful way.

Design Concepts vs. Architectural Themes

While often used interchangeably, design concepts and architectural themes differ in scope and application.

Design concepts are specific to individual projects, focusing on solving particular design challenges or exploiting unique opportunities presented by the project’s context. They are the foundational ideas that guide the project’s development, influencing its overall form, organisation, and materiality.

Architectural themes (or styles), on the other hand, are broader in scope and may encompass a set of principles or ideologies that an architect or movement follows across multiple projects.

Themes can reflect our signature style, a cultural movement, or a response to societal needs and technological advancements. Themes often transcend individual projects, influencing a broader discourse within the architectural community and beyond.

The development of an architectural concept is a dynamic process that involves both divergent thinking—exploring a wide array of possible solutions—and convergent thinking—narrowing down these possibilities into a coherent and focused idea.

This process is iterative, requiring architects to continuously refine their concepts in response to new insights, feedback, and evolving project requirements.

Ultimately, the nature of architectural concepts lies in their ability to encapsulate and communicate the essence of a project.

They serve as a lens through which all design decisions are evaluated, ensuring that the final outcome is not only functional and aesthetically pleasing but also resonant with its intended purpose and context.

Through this, architecture transcends its physical form to become a manifestation of ideas, values, and aspirations, enriching our environments and experiences.

How to Develop an Architectural Design Concept

Sources of Inspiration

Our sources of inspiration are vast and varied, reflecting the diverse world we inhabit and the multitude of perspectives within the architectural community.

These sources can be broadly categorised into the subheadings below, each offering a unique lens through which architects can envision the future of built environments.

01 – Nature

Nature has long been a great source of inspiration, inspiring designs that mimic biological processes, forms, and ecosystems. Biomimicry, for instance, involves taking cues from nature to solve human problems and create sustainable environments.

The concept of a building that breathes, adapts, and grows in response to its surroundings is no longer a figment of imagination but a feasible design philosophy.

Examples include buildings with natural ventilation systems inspired by termite mounds or façades that adapt to sunlight like the movements of sunflowers.

02 – Technology

The rapid advancement of technology has significantly broadened the scope of architectural inspiration.

Digital fabrication, parametric design, and virtual reality are not just tools but sources of inspiration themselves, pushing the boundaries of what is possible in form, structure, and materiality.

These technologies allow us to explore complex geometries and innovative construction techniques, leading to spaces that were once impossible to create. The interplay between the digital and physical opens up new avenues for creativity and functionality.

03 – History

The rich tapestry of architectural history provides an endless well of inspiration.

From the classical proportions of ancient Greek architecture to the ornate detail of Gothic cathedrals and the minimalist ethos of modernism, each period offers insights into the ways societies have interpreted space, form, and function.

We can reference historical styles, principles, or philosophies, reinterpreting them to address contemporary needs and express current aesthetic values.

04 – Socio-Cultural Factors

Architecture is inherently linked to the cultural and social context in which it exists. Socio-cultural factors such as community needs, lifestyle, rituals, and environmental consciousness play a critical role in shaping architectural concepts.

We must navigate these factors sensitively, designing spaces that respect and reflect the identities and values of the communities they serve.

This might involve incorporating communal spaces that foster social interaction, respecting local building traditions, or using materials that carry cultural significance.

05 – Precedent Studies

Studying existing buildings and projects is a fundamental part of the concept development process. Precedent studies offer us a valuable way to learn from the successes and failures of past and present projects.

By analysing how specific design challenges were addressed, we can glean insights into functional layouts, innovative material uses, and sustainable design practices.

Precedent studies not only serve as a source of inspiration but also as a grounding tool, helping to build upon established knowledge rather than starting from scratch.

06 – The Site

The site in our opinion should always be the initial starting point to any conceptual process, but in order to do this correctly you firstly need to have completed and assessed your analysis of it.

We have written extensively about the various stages of the site analysis process, and recommend that you start here with our introduction.

When looking at your sites characteristics and elements, the below can provide key influences to your concepts development: typology, climate, orientation, views, access, context, history, boundaries, shape, features.

In a lot of cases this is one of the key generators in a projects conceptual development, and you should never really be considering a conceptual proposal without already carrying out a detailed site analysis.

In the early stages of a project, a lot of information can be gained before you actually visit the site via a desktop study, but this should always be followed by a physical visit.

The sites parameters can be used to discover the limits, restrictions, and opportunities that can add depth and meaning to your conceptual approach.

07 – Design brief

Whether your project is real or required to be perceived to be, there will always be a design brief that will provide the vital details on the clients and buildings requirements, along with the site your architectural proposal will need to be placed within.

The type of building and its desired accommodation the design brief asks for, will help to identify initial avenues of research and the key principles that will be important to a building of its type.

For example, does the brief call for a singular or collection of buildings, and/or is it public or private …maybe both

Following this the brief will indicate the program size, the projects priorities, its restrictions and allow for it to be approximately mapped out to get an idea of its scale on the site.

08 – Narratives 

Lastly every project should have a narrative… the story behind its inception. 

This can be based on the client, setting, requirements or use for example.

When working on a live project this is often based on the facts presented to us during the projects appraisal and briefing, whereas for an architecture student who often works on hypothetical projects, this may need be to created if it is not provided.

For example a hospice should be a place of healing and tranquillity, and just this small amount of information starts to define where the building should be placed (in a quiet and private location), and how it should address its site (long distant views / bring landscape in / face inwards if urban), and what the spaces should offer (connection and rest).

Conceptual development of a buildings atmosphere, feeling and memory can all be gathered from its narrative.

…In conclusion, the sources of inspiration for architectural concept development are as diverse as the world we live in. By drawing from these, we can create designs that are innovative, relevant, and responsive to the needs of their time.

This eclectic approach ensures that architecture remains a vibrant and dynamic field, continually evolving in dialogue with its past, present, and future.

These first steps are almost always a series of explorations and research that will bring to light conflicting aesthetically, organisational, technical, social or contextual criteria, that can be used as ingredients for further analysis and development.

For your concept to be as successful as possible, its make up needs to consist of and resolve as much of this criteria as possible, whilst addressing the key elements of the brief.

Stages of Concept Development

The journey from an initial idea to a fully developed concept is intricate, involving a series of stages that architects navigate to ensure their designs are not only innovative but also viable and responsive to the needs of their context and users.

This section explores the critical phases of concept development, providing insights into how we can transform abstract ideas into concrete design solutions.

1. Research and Analysis

The foundation of any project lies in thorough research and analysis. This initial stage involves a deep dive into understanding the project’s site, including its geographical, historical, and cultural context.

You must assess the physical characteristics of the location, such as climate, topography, and existing structures, alongside intangible elements like local traditions and community needs.

Equally important is an understanding of the client’s requirements, aspirations, and budget, as well as the regulatory landscape, which includes zoning laws and building codes.

This comprehensive approach ensures that the subsequent concept is deeply rooted in its context, addressing both the tangible and intangible aspects of the site.

2. Idea Generation

Once a solid foundation of knowledge is established, you can begin the process of idea generation. This creative phase is characterised by the exploration of multiple avenues of thought, often through brainstorming sessions, sketching, and model making.

Digital tools may also play a significant role, enabling us to experiment with forms, volumes, and spatial arrangements quickly. The goal is to generate a wide range of ideas, drawing on inspiration from the research phase, to explore the full potential of the project.

This stage is inherently exploratory, encouraging you to think beyond conventional solutions and consider innovative approaches to design challenges.

3. Conceptualisation

This stage involves critical evaluation and synthesis of the initial ideas, focusing on those that best meet the project’s goals, context, and constraints.

The concept begins to take shape through more detailed sketches, models, and digital renderings, with considerations for form, space, materiality, and the interaction between the built environment and its surroundings.

The conceptualisation phase is pivotal, as it translates abstract ideas into a tangible vision for the project, laying the groundwork for detailed design development.

4. Development and Testing

This final stage involves the further development and testing of the chosen concept, and sees the integration of technical details, such as structural systems, materials, and environmental strategies, into the design.

Feedback loops are crucial here, and you must seek input from clients, consultants, and other stakeholders to refine the design.

This iterative process ensures that the final concept is not only aesthetically compelling but also practical, sustainable, and aligned with the project’s objectives.

…Further to this

Developing a concept allows us to frame the questions we have found and are asking from the above research and initial formulation, and guide the design process.

In a concepts development preparation is key, and if you follow the above steps then the ground work will have already been laid, enabling the thinking and understanding to follow.

Analyse the problem the design brief calls to be addressed, look at the regulations and limitations of the site, a good concept is a balance of elements, where sometimes sacrifices and trade offs need to made, for example light over shelter, or screening over openness.

A good and experienced designer knows that the first draft will always need editing, much like a writer, it develops all the way through to the end.

Take your time

Incubation of an idea and unconscious thinking can be hugely beneficial, so take time step away and do something else, let inspiration happen naturally and then test and fine tune your thoughts.

Find the project constraints

Your research will develop site and building constraints that will present natural boundaries. However these should be seen as opportunities and guidelines to design within, that will often narrow down the problem that needs to be solved.

These guidelines can be turned into design limits and principles, where your site analyses will provide physical constraints (where), the client or design brief will define program (size), and the building typology will provide type (what)


The location of your proposal will inform the development of your concept by taking into account the key site features such as the views, shelter, typography and access. Using the site elements, start shaping early massing model to generate basic forms, this will identify the dominate forces.

The site should help shape the architecture.


Materials can be detrimental to creating a concept, and should be explored through their limitations and properties, to determine their weight, thickness, flexible and texture.

This can lead into structural concepts that explore the confines and technology of available strategies that may aim to push the boundaries of the current typologies.

Get drawing!

Lastly start to look at a simple plan and 3D massing model to experiment with simple volumes and the location of spaces.

Start simply by positioning the public and private spaces, determine the various levels of importance, basic orientation, and where transparent and solid faces should be.

These help define the clarity of the concept, by starting to answer key questions such as why is this here, what is it doing and what is its purpose.

For further reading and help, we have a book list containing what we consider to be the current best books on conceptual design, and to find out how a concept compares to a schematic click here.

Develop an Architectural Design Concept


Hurdles and challenges can stem from a variety of sources, including practical, economic, and creative factors. Overcoming these is crucial for the successful realisation of a project that are not only innovates but is also viable and responsive to its contexts and users.

Balancing Creativity with Feasibility

One of the primary challenges is striking a balance between creative aspirations and the feasibility of those ideas.

We are tasked with envisioning spaces that are both innovative and functional, yet the most creative solutions may not always be practical or within budget constraints.


  • Iterative Design Process: Employing an iterative design process allows for the exploration of creative ideas while gradually refining them to meet practical requirements.
  • Collaborative Teamwork: Working closely with engineers, cost consultants, and other specialists from the early stages can help in aligning innovative concepts with technical and budgetary feasibility.

Navigating Regulatory Constraints

Design projects are subject to a wide range of regulatory requirements, including zoning laws, building codes, and environmental regulations.

These constraints can significantly limit the scope of concept development, forcing us to modify or abandon their original ideas.


  • Early Research: Conducting thorough research into the regulatory framework of the project area during the early stages of concept development can help identify potential roadblocks ahead of time.
  • Engagement with Authorities: Engaging with regulatory authorities early on can provide insights into flexible areas of the code and potential for exceptions, aiding in the development of compliant yet innovative concepts.

Addressing Sustainability Concerns

Sustainability has become a central concern in architecture, adding another layer of complexity to concept development. We must integrate sustainable practices and materials into our designs, which can sometimes conflict with aesthetic or functional objectives.


  • Sustainable Design Principles: Incorporating sustainable design principles from the outset can guide the concept development process, ensuring that environmental considerations are integrated seamlessly.
  • Innovative Materials and Technologies: Exploring new materials and technologies can offer solutions that meet both sustainability goals and design objectives, although this often requires extensive research and experimentation.

Managing Client Expectations

Clients (whether real or not) play a crucial role, and managing their expectations can be challenging, especially when their vision differs from ours or when they have unrealistic goals.


  • Effective Communication: Clear and continuous communication with the client about the design process, constraints, and trade-offs can help align expectations.
  • Visualisation Tools: Utilising visualisation tools to present ideas can aid in bridging the gap between the architect’s concept and the client’s expectations, facilitating a more productive dialogue.

Embracing Technological Advancements

While new tools and techniques can enhance creativity and efficiency, staying abreast of these changes and integrating them into the design process can be daunting.


  • Continuous Learning: We can embrace lifelong learning as a strategy to keep up with technological advancements, dedicating time for training and experimentation.
  • Selective Adoption: Carefully selecting which technologies to incorporate based on their potential to enhance the project, rather than adopting new tools indiscriminately, can help manage this challenge effectively.

While concept development is fraught with challenges, adopting strategic approaches can help navigate these obstacles.

Balancing creativity with feasibility, navigating regulatory constraints, addressing sustainability concerns, managing client expectations, and embracing technological advancements are all integral to developing concepts that are both innovative and achievable.

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FAQs About Concept Development

How do you create an architecture concept? 

Your concept should never start with a rigid and rigorous approach and therefore in the early stages wants to aim to be as malleable and as flexible as possible, and so approach its development with your eyes wide open to all influences, from all directions. 

To create your concept you must firstly address and research all three of the concept categories described above along with a fourth, the building typology. Only once all these areas have been researched and evaluated, should you start to formalise your method.

These four areas are summarised as:  

01 Site Analyse. Take the data described above and identify the key constraints, features and characteristics of the site and its surrounding context.

02 Design Brief. This is the information presented by the client that should address the building type, preferences, budget, culture, preconceptions, agenda, personality, organisation, and program.

03 Buildings Typology. This determines the genre of the building, its purpose, the services it provides and how it should work.

04 Project Narrative. This identifies the story behind the project, the people who will use it, and how it will sit and grow within its context.

Identifying these four points will provide the foundations to your concept development, and play a vital role in developing a meaningful response.

This information then needs to be gathered and translated into usable and useful material, and so starting with the your site analyse (point 01), overlay the key features and elements such as the site boundary, typography, existing and neighbouring buildings, trees and vegetation, and solar orientation and paths, onto a site plan. 

The program should be then be mapped out in diagram form onto the site to determine the size of the overall building and individual spaces, as well as whether it should be single story or have a number of stories …all outlining the projects constraints and requirements.

…In a “real” scenario this is strongly dependent on the clients available budget.

The arrangement of your program should be influenced by the other categories, and as an example may be based on life style (project narrative), seasons (site analysis), and use (building typology).

These can then be translated into public and private spaces / served and served / utiliertaran and living spaces.

These are important as there is simply no way a concept can be generated without the necessary background information to support it.

Using the third point and identifying the building typology is key in understanding the projects outcomes, and if you are not familiar with the required typology then extensive precedent research should take place with the clear goal of understanding the inner and outer workings of the building type.

Knowing the typology provides you with the opportunity to reinvent and improve what already existing.

Lastly the narrative provides a concept will final layer of relevancy, making it relatable and human. This could come from the client, the building type, or the site.

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This Post Has 2 Comments

  1. Cathy Smith

    Thank you for this wonderful article about How to Develop an Architectural Design Concept. I am really happy to be able to read it.

  2. Pius Prosper


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