What are working drawing?
Working drawings, also known as construction drawings, serve as a common language between architects, engineers, contractors, and other stakeholders in a construction project.
They are a comprehensive set of documents that provide detailed, graphical representations of a building’s or structure’s components. The primary purpose of working drawings is to illustrate how a structure should be built, providing a clear and concise guide for construction teams.
From the blueprint of a small home renovation to the detailed schematics of a towering skyscraper, these drawings are crucial to the execution of any construction project. They are a manifestation of the creativity and vision of the architect or designer and serve as the roadmap for the contractor and their team.
Working drawings contain essential information about the size, shape, and location of all parts of the building, as well as the type of materials to be used.
In essence, working drawings ensure that everyone involved in a project shares a unified understanding of what is to be built, preventing costly errors and misinterpretations. They translate the design concept into construction-ready format, transforming ideas into reality.
In this article, we will delve into the intricate world of working drawings, exploring their types, components, preparation process, and the challenges that come with them.
Advantages of working drawings
Working drawings are a critical part of the design and construction process and offer several advantages:
- Detail-Oriented: They are the most detailed and specific type of construction documents. They provide intricate details of all parts of the building, down to the smallest components, to guide builders and artisans accurately.
- Clear Communication: These drawings help to communicate the design intent clearly and concisely among all parties involved in a project. They enable architects, engineers, contractors, and even clients to visualize the project in the same manner.
- Code Compliance: They are crucial to ensure that a project is in compliance with local building codes and regulations. They demonstrate how a project adheres to these rules, which is important for obtaining building permits and avoiding legal issues.
- Cost Estimation: They’re used to estimate the cost of the project accurately. They provide detailed specifications that help in determining the amount and type of materials required, labor costs, and other related expenses.
- Reduction of Errors: By providing explicit instructions and precise measurements, working drawings help reduce errors during construction, leading to cost and time savings. They also help avoid potential conflicts and misunderstandings during the construction process.
- Quality Assurance: They serve as a reference for quality control during the construction process. The detailed plans and sections help to verify that the building is being constructed as per the design, ensuring that the final product aligns with the initial vision.
- Contractual Document: Lastly, working drawings also serve as a part of the contractual documents between the client and the contractor. They define the scope of work, which can be helpful in resolving disputes if any arise during the project.
Types of Working Drawings
Working drawings can be classified into several types, each serving a unique purpose and containing detailed instructions specific to an aspect of a project. Here are the key types of working drawings:
Or general arrangement drawings (GA’s) are the foundation of all construction projects. These drawings provide a detailed representation of the overall design of the building.
They typically include floor plans, elevations, sections, and details that describe the location, geometry, and other details of all architectural elements of the building. This might include structural and constructional details, the type and texture of the building material to be used, and even the style of windows and doors.
Structural drawings are essential for specifying the framework of a building, such as the concrete framework, beams, columns, and foundations. These drawings provide comprehensive details about the load-bearing structures, including dimensions, material types, and sizes.
Structural drawings can include foundation plans, framing plans, and detailed sections and are critical for ensuring the stability and safety of a building.
These drawings are used to layout and install the electrical systems within the building. Electrical drawings would include the location of outlets, fixtures, switches, and the route of circuitry connecting these elements.
They also provide details on the electrical load of different appliances and how they should be distributed across various circuits.
Plumbing and Sanitary Drawings:
These drawings show the design of the building’s water supply and waste disposal system. They depict the details of fixtures like sinks, toilets, bathtubs, and the path of the water supply and drainage pipes. It also includes specifications for pipe sizes and materials, and the location of shut-off valves.
Other Specific Types of Drawings:
There are many other types of working drawings that are specific to particular disciplines or project requirements. For example, HVAC drawings provide details on the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, including ductwork, vent locations, and equipment details.
Similarly, fire protection drawings outline the layout and details of fire alarm systems, sprinkler systems, and emergency exits.
Each type of working drawing contributes to a holistic understanding of the project and ensures that all stakeholders have the detailed information they need to execute their parts of the project accurately and efficiently.
Components of Working Drawings
Elevations – Elevations provide a vertical view of the structure. They illustrate the height of the building, the position and size of windows, doors, and other architectural features. Elevation drawings can offer four perspectives: front, rear, and both sides, providing a comprehensive view of the building’s exterior.
Floor Plans – Floor plans provide a top-down view of each floor in the building. They indicate the layout of rooms, corridors, staircases, and the placement of furniture. They also specify the placement of windows, doors, and large appliances. Floor plans are fundamental to understanding the flow and functionality of spaces within the building.
Foundation Plans – Foundation plans detail the footing, column locations, foundation walls, and other elements that provide structural integrity to the building. These plans also indicate the type of foundation system, such as slab-on-grade, crawl space, or basement. They offer crucial information for the building’s initial construction stages.
Section Views – Section views, or cross-sections, offer a ‘cut-through’ perspective of the building. They are particularly useful in demonstrating the relationship between different levels of a building. They provide details about construction materials, floor-to-floor heights, roofing details, and wall assembly.
Roof Framing Plans – Roof framing plans detail the design of the roof structure. They specify the type of roofing materials, the pitch of the roof, locations of gutters, downspouts, and the design and placement of trusses or rafters.
Electrical Plans – Electrical plans show the placement of outlets, fixtures, and switches, as well as the routing of circuits. They detail the locations of light fixtures, power outlets, wired devices, and electrical system layouts. These drawings ensure the correct installation and safety of electrical components.
Construction and Architectural Details – Detailed drawings zoom in on particular areas or components of the building, providing more information than can be seen in the broader views. These can include window details, door details, eave details, staircase details, and more.
These drawings offer a close-up view of how different elements will connect and be constructed in real life, serving as a vital reference for both the design and construction teams.
The Process of Preparing Working Drawings
Creating working drawings is typically a collaborative process involving architects, engineers, and sometimes specialized drafters. The responsibility for preparing these drawings is usually assigned to the professional most suitable for each type of drawing. For instance, architects primarily handle architectural drawings, structural engineers tackle structural drawings, and so on.
The process of preparing working drawings typically begins after the preliminary design has been finalized and approved, serving as a critical bridge between design and execution phases.
Use of CAD and BIM in Preparing Working Drawings
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Building Information Modeling (BIM) have revolutionized the process of preparing working drawings. CAD enables drafters to create 2D or 3D graphical representations of physical objects, while BIM extends this capacity by incorporating information about a building’s characteristics and functionality.
Programs like AutoCAD and Revit are widely used in this process. They not only increase accuracy and efficiency but also facilitate easier changes and corrections.
Importance of Compliance with Industry Standards and Building Codes
One of the essential aspects of preparing working drawings is ensuring compliance with industry standards and building codes. These include regulations regarding safety, environmental impact, accessibility, and other essential factors.
A well-prepared working drawing will adhere to all these requirements, providing a clear roadmap for builders to follow. Any deviation from these codes and standards can lead to legal complications, increased costs, and potential project delays.
While preparing these drawings, it’s also crucial to consider practical aspects such as the ease of construction and materials availability. Careful attention to such details will ensure a smooth construction process and ultimately lead to a successful project outcome.
Challenges and Common Issues in Working Drawings
Coordination among these professionals is crucial to ensure that the information provided in the drawings is consistent and coherent. Without effective communication, discrepancies might occur leading to unnecessary revisions, delays, and increased costs.
Errors and Omissions – Despite the precision tools and technologies available today, errors and omissions in working drawings are still a common issue. This can be due to human error, miscommunication, or lack of understanding of the project requirements. Such errors can lead to serious consequences including incorrect construction, wasted materials, time delays, and increased expenses.
Information Accessibility – Often, the data included in the working drawings is complex and dense. It can be challenging for non-specialists, including clients and some contractors, to interpret the drawings accurately. This can lead to misunderstandings and incorrect implementations. Hence, there is a need for clear and accessible presentation of information in these drawings.
Presentation Issues – Working drawings need to communicate a great deal of information in a concise and clear manner. However, poor presentation can lead to confusion and misinterpretation. This includes unclear labeling, improper scaling, or overcrowded details. It is important to maintain a balance between providing all necessary details and keeping the drawings readable and understandable.
Use of Outdated Information – In the dynamic field of construction, building codes, standards, and technologies are constantly evolving. There’s a risk that professionals might use outdated information while preparing working drawings. This could result in non-compliance with the latest codes and standards, leading to legal issues, safety risks, and the potential need for costly revisions.
In order to mitigate these common issues, thorough checking procedures, effective communication, continuous learning, and proper use of technology should be prioritized by the teams responsible for creating working drawings.
Working Drawings vs Shop Drawings
Working Drawings and Shop Drawings are both essential components in the construction process, but they serve different functions and are utilized by different parties in the project.
- Definition: Working drawings, also known as construction drawings, are comprehensive, detailed sets of plans that provide instructions on how to construct a building. They are prepared by architects and engineers and typically include site plans, floor plans, elevations, sections, and details.
- Purpose: Their main purpose is to communicate the design intent of the architect or designer to the contractor and workers on site. They are used as a guide for the construction process.
- Content: These drawings are more detailed than preliminary sketches, as they show every part of the project in detail, specifying the location, dimension, type of materials, finishes, and more.
- Definition: Shop drawings are a subset of the working drawings, prepared by contractors, manufacturers, suppliers, or fabricators. They provide more detailed information about individual components that need to be manufactured or fabricated, such as custom cabinetry, windows, doors, or equipment.
- Purpose: They are mainly used to explain how a specific part of the project will be produced or installed. They detail the specifics of the material, fabrication, sizing, and installation of components.
- Content: Shop drawings are generally more detailed than working drawings, providing a deeper level of detail about the fabrication or installation of specific components. These drawings often include specific measurements, manufacturing conventions, and sometimes even exact product specifications.
In a nutshell, working drawings provide an overview of the entire construction process, while shop drawings zoom in on the details of specific elements or components. Both types of drawings are crucial for the successful completion of a project, but they are used by different stakeholders at different stages of the project.